Dried hemp plant materials including the stalks and leaves that may include flowers/buds and/or seeds that have been harvested. Free of mold, grit, minimal (< 0.1%) non-hemp organic matter, and at least 80% dry. An industry-wide acceptable moisture content is necessary to establish uniform pricing for hemp biomass. Any hemp biomass material that is above the standard moisture content will result in decreased value and an adjusted sale price to reflect a lower volume of the end product to account for further water evaporation. Biomass can also be milled, ground or pressed into pellets.
Dry flower is the dried flower and bud fraction of a hemp plant that has been removed from the stalks and contains minimal stems. Flower is suitable for smoking and for use in pre-rolled joints.
Hemp stalks are stripped of the outer bark/shell/skin of the stalk using a decorticator, ranging from hand-cranked to automated electric processing. The removal of the hard outer bark/shell/skin of the hemp stalk exposes the fiber core of the plant which is then readily usable for production.
Hemp stalks with the outer bark/shell/skin intact. The hemp stalks may or may not have gone through a retting process that allows microbes and moisture to break down the stalk, making the fiber easier to remove.
A clone refers to a plant that is an exact reproduction of an original parent plant, known as a mother plant, through asexual propagation. A clone is made by taking a stem cutting (or tissue culture) from a mother plant and placing the cutting into media to facilitate root growth. Once the roots begin to grow, the clone is transplanted into a field or cultivation facility.
Industrial hemp seeds comprise a broad range of hemp cultivars used to grow hemp biomass, hemp seed and grain for food oils and food products, and fiber for woven and non-woven applications.
Hemp plants that are pollinated naturally or with traditional breeding techniques produce both male or female seeds. These are known as regular, or non-feminized, seeds and generally result in an even split between the two sexes.
Feminized seeds are seeds that have been modified to produce almost 100% female plants. There are a few techniques that can produce reliably feminized seeds. Feminized hemp seeds can be genetically modified to produce only female plants by eliminating the X chromosome. A non-genetic technique is to stress a healthy female plant by interrupting its light cycle during flowering. Another common and controlled method is to spray female plants with a colloidal silver or silver thiosulphate solution.
Crude hemp oil is extracted from the hemp plant and contains all of the cannabinoids, terpenes and other plant compounds found in the biomass. Processors use a number of different methods to extract crude oil from hemp. Supercritical CO2 extraction uses pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2) to pull CBD (and other phytochemicals) from the plant. Solvent extraction uses ethanol or hydrocarbons, such as butane or propane, to process hemp biomass into crude oil. Other processes use olive oil or water as a solvent.
Crude hemp oil is often “winterized.” Crude oil is winterized to remove organic plant compounds, such as lipids, waxes and chlorophyll, that increases the potency of the oil and creates a more transparent distillate.
Crude hemp oil is further refined through distillation to produce refined hemp oil, which includes full spectrum oil and broad spectrum oil.
CBD full spectrum oil distillate is refined hemp oil extract that contains all the compounds found naturally occurring in the plant, including all the cannabinoids, terpenes and essential oils.
CBD broad spectrum oil distillate is refined hemp oil extract that includes all the compounds found naturally in the plant, except broad spectrum oil has been processed to remove all or substantially all of the THC.
CBD isolate is the purest form of CBD, which is produced by removing all other compounds found in the plant including terpene, flavonoids, plant parts and other cannabinoids. CBD isolate comes in a granular or powder form and is odorless and tasteless. The end product contains 0% THC and is made up of 96% to 99.9% CBD.